The future lies in the protection of new technologies


Dmitry Gennadievich

General manager


Mikhail Olegovich

Director of Science - Chief Designer

The Research Institute was established in May 1942 at the height of the Great Patriotic War. His main tasks were the organization of the production of armored steels in the country's factories and the study of the protection of captured equipment. After the war, the institute quickly expanded the range of tasks to be solved and by the 50s, in addition to armor protection, BTT began to develop protection against the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion, and widely deployed research in the field of materials and new protection technologies. The main achievements of the Institute in those years were the development and application of the world's first combined armor protection on the T-64 tank, and anti-radiation protection on the T-55 tank. At the end of the 60s, the Research Institute of Steel mastered new directions related to the protection of military equipment from detection and high-precision weapons, the development of active, dynamic protection and protective complexes on other principles began. During the years of perestroika, the institute managed not only to find an application for its potential, but also entered the foreign market of military products, which allowed it not only to survive, but also to develop successfully.

Today, JSC Research Institute has become a dynamically developing company, whose developments have been implemented on almost all samples of serial and promising land military equipment. By the decision of the Ministry of Industry and Trade, JSC Research Institute of Steel is defined as the main organization in Russia for the comprehensive protection of VIVT. Many developments are successfully exported. The Institute's products are supplied to more than 30 countries around the world. The integrated structure created in JSC Research Institute of Steel, including a modern experimental and production base, allows the institute to conduct not only scientific research, but also to carry out serial production of created products in the interests of Russian and foreign customers.

From the first days of the creation of the Research Institute of Steel, he established close cooperation with the military structures responsible for the armored industry of the country (now the GABTU of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation). It was this cooperation that became the link that allowed our country to create the best armored weapons in the world and maintain the brand of Russian weapons to this day.

Congratulating GABTU on the 90th anniversary of JSC Research Institute of Steel, I wish its management and staff to continue to keep our armored shield in full combat readiness!

The time of monolithic steel barriers and even combined structures that provide the necessary level of protection against modern and promising weapons of destruction is a thing of the past. Today they are so advanced and so diverse that it is problematic to solve the issues of protection against them in traditional ways.

The dynamic protection technology proposed by JSC Research Institute of Steel in the 70s of the last century allowed to restore parity with the means of destruction for a long time. The dynamic protection complexes Kontakt, Kontakt-5, Relict developed by JSC Research Institute of Steel and put into serial production on the basis of elements of EDZ 4C20, 4C22, 4C23 not only provided the necessary level of protection of domestic armored vehicles. Many of them are exported to dozens of foreign countries. Today, JSC Research Institute of Steel is one of the world leaders in the field of DZ, preparing for mass production a new generation of EDZ, superior in their characteristics to serial EDZ.


The DZ Relict complex developed by JSC Research Institute of Steel on the T-90MS Breakthrough tank

Continuing to work on new explosive compositions for the DZ, JSC Research Institute of Steel has developed a new direction in protection technologies - energy materials and protection elements based on them. Energy materials are a new class of protective materials that stands between EDZ and NERA. These materials work on the principle of local energy release in a narrow interaction zone, which increases the efficiency of protection and its survivability.

Active protection complexes (KAZ), which are currently being developed in all tank-producing countries, are considered a step forward in protection technologies. The practice of the actual use of these complexes, for example, by Israel has shown their high effectiveness primarily against cumulative weapons of destruction. Russia was one of the first in the world to implement this technology and today has several workable complexes installed on both upgraded and new armored vehicles. The Research Institute of Steel, which has made a significant contribution to the implementation of this technology in Russia, continues to cooperate with the main developers of KAZ today.

In accordance with the concept of ensuring the security of BTT on the battlefield, one of the effective measures is to reduce its visibility. The Cape kits developed by the Research Institute of Steel are highly likely to perform these functions in the radar and IR wavelength ranges and are one of the main means of protecting BTT from technical means of reconnaissance and weapon guidance (RINO) of the enemy.

However, today the development of RENO funds in the world is ahead of the development of means of reducing visibility, which negatively affects the security of BTT.

Cape complete with other RPMs on the T-90 tank

Huge attention is paid to solving these problems abroad, intensive work is underway on so-called adaptive masking complexes that automatically change the signature of the protected object in a wide range of wavelengths in accordance with the surrounding background.

These technologies make it possible to protect an object from detection not only in the radar and IR ranges, but also in the most problematic optical at short ranges.

Russia is also conducting research in this area, but the level of achievements is still limited to the demonstration of technology on personal protective equipment, in particular, on helmets, and it is still very far from adapting it to armored vehicles.

Mines and improvised explosive devices, especially common in local armed conflicts, are becoming increasingly dangerous for BTT weapons of destruction.

Russian MRAP Typhoon-U

Back in 2004, special standards were created abroad regulating the protection of armored vehicles and crew members from this type of threat, and a special class of armored vehicles with an increased level of mine resistance MRAP was created. Russia is also stepping up work in this direction. New samples of highly protected equipment have been created and adopted, which are not inferior to the best foreign analogues. The protection of many of these machines was developed and even manufactured in JSC Research Institute of Steel. Among them are a family of cars based on Ural (Ural-BB, Typhoon-U, SAO Phlox, etc.), Tornado, Platform, etc.

The methodological apparatus and testing base for assessing the mine resistance of BTT are being improved. So in 2017, JSC Research Institute of Steel carried out one of the first work in Russia (ROC Udar) to create methods and a test base for assessing the mine resistance of BTT facilities, in 2019 it is planned to continue these works.

Positive feedback from domestic and foreign experts received energy-absorbing chairs developed by JSC Research Institute of Steel, which increase the survival rate of crews when a car is blown up by a mine.

Energy-absorbing chairs developed by the Research Institute of Steel on the BMP Dragoon (photo from the Army-2018 forum)

Already as a standard option, the protection of some promising BTT samples includes a complex of electromagnetic mine protection (SEM), developed by JSC Research Institute of Steel. The complex provides protection against mines.

High-precision weapons (WTO) have long been an objective reality and represent one of the most dangerous threats to BTT. Many samples of the WTO are designed to hit a target in its weakly protected roof projection. These are ATGMs (Javelin, Spike), many cluster, aviation and mortar ammunition. The problem of protecting the upper hemisphere is increasing with the expansion of the use of unmanned combat drones capable of carrying anti-tank weapons.

To combat such a threat, existing means of protection, including DZ and KAZ, are ineffective.

JSC Research Institute of Steel has proposed and implements within the framework of the Boomerang ROC a special upper hemisphere protection complex (HPC), which provides reliable protection of BTT from these means of destruction.

In cooperation with a number of academic institutes, JSC Research Institute of Steel today offers another complex of active protection of the upper hemisphere from the WTO, based on new physical principles, in which the destruction of high-precision ammunition is carried out not by a fragmentation field or high-explosive impact, but in a safer way for the surrounding equipment and troops.

Although the potential of passive methods of protection is almost exhausted, there are still a number of areas in this area that can have an effect primarily against traditional means of destruction.

Firstly, these are new armor materials. Only in the last 10-15 years, more than a dozen new materials have appeared in protective structures, the use of which has allowed to increase the effectiveness of bulletproof protection by 2-3 times. These are various ceramics, polymers, ultra-high-strength steels, organoplastics.

JSC Research Institute of Steel, in cooperation with industry enterprises, continues to improve them, not forgetting about the development of materials for critical components of VIVT. Thus, the phenylon balls produced by the Institute are widely used today in the running devices of lightly armored vehicles.

Secondly, these are new structures in which the energy released during their destruction is spent, among other things, on the destruction of the ammunition itself. Such structures abroad are called asneraand are widely used in the protection of modern BTT. JSC Research Institute of Steel has been developing this direction for many years. Cellular armor, reflective sheets - these well-known brands of protective structures of the type are developed with the participation of the Institute and implemented in the protection of T-72, T-80 tanks. Today, JSC Research Institute of Steel has developments that provide a significant increase in the efficiency of such structures.

The use of ceramic armor panels to increase the security of the BTR-80

JSC Research Institute of Steel continues to work on the protection of fuel tanks, and on improving the protection of VIVT and personnel from the damaging factors of nuclear weapons, the likelihood of which with the termination of the INF treaty has only increased. JSC Research Institute of Steel is today the only supplier of anti-radiation vests for BTT crews.

Thus, JSC Research Institute of Steel today has all the necessary competencies to implement new protection technologies, expand the range of new more effective protective complexes and structures that provide the required level of protection of BTT from modern and promising means of destruction.

Developments of JSC Research Institute of Steel for advanced technology

Armata Tank

-New ultra-high-strength STEEL 44C-SV-Sh

-A new complex of dynamic protection Monolith based on energy materials

-Electromagnetic protection System (SEMS)

-A set of means to reduce visibility

-Composite armor panels of additional protection based on ceramics

-Anti-shatter screens based on aramids.

BMP Kurganets

-Aluminum armor, including layered

-Upper hemisphere protection complex

-Electromagnetic protection system

-Mounted dynamic protection system

-Composite armor panels of additional protection based on ceramics

-Energy-absorbing anti-mine chairs

BTR Boomerang

-Upper hemisphere protection complex

-Electromagnetic protection system

-A set of means to reduce visibility

-Composite armor panels of additional protection based on ceramics

The article was published in the anniversary collection "GABTU-90 years".


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